Many of his officers disagreed, recommending instead that they wait for the arrival of the heavy artillery. Mexican perceptions of the battle often mirrored the prevailing viewpoint. [48] The Texians received one reinforcement that night, when one of Seguin's men, Gregorio Esparza, arrived with his family. [26] The next night, Santa Anna and his army camped at Leon Creek, 8 miles (13 km) west of what is now Downtown San Antonio. School and NHD project, 2005. [91], At 10 p.m. on March 5, the Mexican artillery ceased their bombardment. I will, however, do the best I can under the circumstances, and I feel confident that the determined valour and desperate courage, heretofore evinced by my men, will not fail them in the last struggle, and although they may be sacrificed to the vengeance of a Gothic enemy, the victory will cost the enemy so dear, that it will be worse for him than a defeat. Throughout the day, the Mexican army reconnoitered the Alamo defenses. Bowie and Travis then mutually agreed to fire the cannon again. [28] The men quickly herded cattle in the Alamo and scrounged for food in nearby houses. [10] The complex sprawled across 3 acres (1.2 ha), providing almost 1,320 feet (400 m) of perimeter to defend. Related Stories. The first consisted of four men who gained the fort one night, and the second was a party of twenty-five." see Lindley pg.94, To the People of Texas & All Americans in the World, With Davy Crockett at the Fall of the Alamo, Foreign relations of the Republic of Texas,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 04:52. [130] Historians disagree on which version of Crockett's death is accurate. Thirteen days earlier, on February 23, Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna ordered a siege of the Alamo Mission (near present-day San … - Jason Stanford. To mitigate the resulting ill feelings, Bowie agreed to share command with Travis. [155], In San Antonio de Béxar, the largely Tejano population viewed the Alamo complex as more than just a battle site; it represented decades of assistance—as a mission, a hospital, or a military post. [61] Charles Despallier, Robert Brown, James Rose and a few others volunteered for the mission. [70], Residents of Bexar were able to come into or near the Alamo in the first few days of the siege. Alamo Commander William Barrett Travis’ original letter, penned during the siege, was displayed at the Alamo recently. 13 DAYS of GLORY at the siege of ALAMO!!! He boasted to Texian Army commander Sam Houston that the Texians could "whip 10 to 1 with our artillery". As Santa Anna had anticipated, the exhausted Texians soon fell into the first uninterrupted sleep many of them had since the siege began. By nightfall, part of the wall had begun to collapse, and Jameson kept the men working all night to shore up the walls with pieces of lumber. [108] According to Lindley, Bastian ran across Martin's men from Gonzales and volunteered to lead them to the Alamo. The Alamo had nothing to do with the Confederacy or the Civil War, which occurred 25 years after the famous Texas battle. Almonte later said that Jameson asked for an honorable surrender, but Bartres replied "I reply to you, according to the order of His Excellency, that the Mexican army cannot come to terms under any conditions with rebellious foreigners to whom there is no recourse left, if they wish to save their lives, than to place themselves immediately at the disposal of the Supreme Government from whom alone they may expect clemency after some considerations. Five days later, a small group of volunteers arrived, including the famous frontiersman and former U.S. The next night, his army camped on the Nueces River, 119 miles (192 km) from Bexar. [45], By the time the parleys were over it was nightfall, and the firing ceased. At 5:30 am, Santa Anna gave the order for the advance, and his excited troops began shouting "Viva Santa Anna, Viva la republica! A second group was driven across the prairie by Mexican soldiers. Sesma reported that this skirmish involved 50 Texians, but Edmondson believes that number was inflated. [Note 11][79], On March 3, the Texians watched from the walls as approximately 1,000 Mexicans marched into Béxar. [130] Again, officers advocated waiting for the arrival of the heavy artillery. Unlike previous bombardments, each shot from this battery impacted the walls, causing them to begin to crumble. None of the defenders survived. In Victoria, Colonel Wharton was preparing to cross the Guadalupe River, while in San Felipe, Captain Mosely Baker ordered the local militia to prepare to march on February 29. The famed Alamo battle was fought more than 200 miles away from where President Donald Trump is expected to give a defiant speech on Tuesday, but historians say that by speaking in Alamo, Texas, Trump is bringing to mind a piece of history that is fraught with racist myths.. Alamo is a small town on the Texas-Mexico border named after the 19th-century mission and fortress in San … The aim of the previous constitution was to create a political system that would emulate the success of the United States, but after a decade of political turmoil, economic stagnation, and threats and actual foreign invasion, conservatives concluded that a better path for Mexico was centralized power. The Texas Legislature purchased the land and buildings in the early part of the 20th century and designated the Alamo chapel as an official Texas State Shrine. [7] The border region of Mexican Texas was largely populated by immigrants from the United States, some legal but most illegal. [131] In Mexican history, the Texas campaign, including the Battle of the Alamo, was soon overshadowed by the Mexican–American War of 1846–48. A small group of men fought to the death to maintain control of the San Antonio fortress. [Note 15][127][128] Incensed that his orders had been ignored, Santa Anna demanded the immediate execution of the survivors. Fifteen minutes into the battle, they attacked a third time. Bowie celebrated by getting very intoxicated and creating havoc in Béxar. [141] Seguín later claimed that he had placed the coffin in front of the altar at the San Fernando Cathedral. [122] At this point, Lindley calculated that the Alamo should have had approximately 164 effective men. [12] At the northern corner of the east wall stood a cattle pen and horse corral. [85] That evening, a local woman, likely Bowie's cousin-in-law Juana Navarro Alsbury, approached Santa Anna to negotiate a surrender for the Alamo occupiers. On This Day in Alamo History - March 6, 1836On the thirteenth day, Santa Anna gives the order to attack just before dawn. [87] The group then took six hours to cross the waist-deep water of the San Antonio River. Before beginning his assault on the Alamo, Santa Anna offered them one last chance to surrender. [123] The Texians watched from the walls as approximately 1000 Mexican troops, attired in dress uniform, marched into Bexar's military plaza. [27][29] Smith and Sutherland spotted members of the Mexican cavalry within 1.5 miles (2.4 km) of the town and returned to Béxar at a run. [20] Mexican forces had left behind 19 cannons, which Jameson installed along the walls. Cos rejected the idea. [55] No Texians were injured.[63]. [160] According to Bill Groneman's Battlefields of Texas, the Alamo has become "the most popular tourist site in Texas".[159]. [28], Houston could not spare the number of men necessary to mount a successful defense. (Petite (1999), p. Albert Martin had reached Gonzales, the most westerly community of Texians, on February 25, the day after Sutherland and Smith had arrived with Travis's first message. And now it remains for him to be generous to the vanquished." [122] Even with all of the Texians dead, Mexican soldiers continued to shoot, some killing each other in the confusion. Extensive use is made of original documents, from both sides of the battle, with legend (the famous line in the sand) presented as legend, and no historical rewriting. Mexican general Santa Anna appeared in short order at the head of a massive army and laid siege to the Alamo. [97] Bonham was asked to tie a white handkerchief around his hat when he returned so that the Texians would know to open the gates for him. [116], During this time period, the Mexican army continued to venture nearer the Alamo. [83][Note 12], On March 4, the day after his reinforcements arrived, Santa Anna proposed an assault on the Alamo. [7] In Mexico City, President Antonio López de Santa Anna had begun gathering an army to retake Texas. The siege of the Alamo began with an artillery bombardment, while the Mexican infantry slowly encircled the old mission. The second day of the siege began early with the Texians facing a newly established battery erected by the Mexicans during the night. [56], Two notable events occurred on Wednesday, February 24. The soldiers were soon reduced to partial rations. 372. [65] Several Texians ventured out to gather firewood but returned empty-handed after encountering Mexican skirmishers. Sesma was forced to send reinforcements, and the Texians were eventually killed. Hand-drawn map depicting the Siege of the Alamo. [16] As the Texians struggled to find men and supplies, Santa Anna's army began marching north. [Note 6] The men instead elected Bowie, who had a reputation as a fierce fighter, as their commander. [40][Note 7] Temperatures in Texas reached record lows, and by February 13 an estimated 15–16 inches (38–41 cm) of snow had fallen. "[100] and, as he passed a group of Tejanos, "¡No rendirse, muchachos!" Tennessee Ernie Ford's "The Ballad of Davy Crockett" spent 16 weeks on the country music charts, peaking at No. [133] His secretary, Ramón Martínez Caro, later repudiated the report. Fragments of uniforms were found in the coffin, and it is known that the Alamo occupiers did not wear uniforms. [72] Seguin, riding Bowie's horse, which was the fastest in the mission, and his aide Antonio Cruz left about 9 pm. [92][93] Veterans were positioned on the outside of the columns to better control the new recruits and conscripts in the middle. The Texicans at the Alamo delayed Santa Anna's advance for 2 weeks giving Sam Houston time to prepare for the decisive battle at San Jacinto. [18] Described by Santa Anna as an "irregular fortification hardly worthy of the name",[18] the Alamo had been designed to withstand an attack by native tribes, not an artillery-equipped army. Several hours later, Texian scouts reported seeing Mexican troops 1.5 miles (2.4 km) outside the town. [136][137], Mexican soldiers were buried in the local cemetery, Campo Santo. One of the batteries was located along the right bank of the San Antonio River, approximately 1,000 feet (300 m) from the south wall of the Alamo. That afternoon, the entire group joined the group waiting at Cibolo Creek, 35 miles (56 km) from the Alamo. [105] On the march to Bexar eight additional men joined the group. The Low Barracks was 114 feet (35 m) long, and the Long Barracks was 186 feet (57 m) long and 18 feet (5.5 m) wide. [135] Some historians believe that at least one Texian, Henry Warnell, successfully escaped from the battle. [21] Travis had also assumed that Santa Anna would not have begun gathering troops for an invasion of Texas until after he had learned of Cos's defeat; the Texians did not realize that Santa Anna had begun preparations for an invasion months before. [103] Few of the Mexican ladders reached the walls. [112] Seguin recruited an additional 25 Tejanos, and Dr. Sutherland and Horace Alsbury, husband of Juana Navarro Alsbury, recruited 12 more men and set out on February 28 for Cibolo in the hopes of meeting Fannin. It is also considered more faithful to the actual events than other movies. [50] Throughout the night the Mexican artillery sporadically bombarded the church and long barracks, while the Mexican army fired muskets and shouted to fool the Texians into believing that an assault was imminent, or that Texian reinforcements were being slaughtered. Bonham then went to Gonzales, only to find that most of the men who weren't at the Alamo had gone to the constitutional convention. Although the men hit water, they weakened an earth and timber parapet by the low barracks; the mound collapsed, leaving no way to fire safely over that wall. The resolution effectively banned the taking of prisoners of war: in this period of time, captured pirates were executed immediately. [51] Believing that Travis had acted hastily, Bowie sent Jameson to meet with Santa Anna. [23][103] During the third strike, Romero's column, aiming for the east wall, was exposed to cannon fire and shifted to the north, mingling with the second column. [49] Travis was angered that Bowie had acted unilaterally and sent his own representative, Captain Albert Martin. The Texians often picked up the cannonballs and reused them. [87] Historian Robert Scott suggests that the trip was initiated after Fannin's objections were overridden by his officers. [140] The Texian sentries were surprised and killed quickly before they could raise an alarm. [54] Travis sent the letter with courier Albert Martin, who delivered it to Gonzales. [76] By February 29, the Allende Infantry Battalion was stationed on the east side of the complex, while the Jiménez Battalion guarded the left, along the road to Gonzales. [155] Santa Anna had been disgraced following his capture at the Battle of San Jacinto, and many Mexican accounts of the battle were written by men who had been, or had become, his outspoken critics. For the next 10 days, the two armies engaged in several skirmishes with minimal casualties. [100] Santa Anna sent more couriers to Gaona and Filisola to urge them to hurry; Filisola was still at the Rio Grande. [144], Within hours of Houston's arrival on March 11, Andres Barcenas and Anselmo Bergaras arrived with news that the Alamo had fallen and all Texians were slain. Santa Anna with nearly 1,800 Mexican troops far outnumbered the band of 188 men who had retreated into the Alamo. Congressman David Crockett of Tennessee. [102] Travis rushed to his post yelling, "Come on boys, the Mexicans are upon us and we'll give them hell! [19] The complex sprawled across 3 acres (1.2 ha), providing almost 1,320 feet (400 m) of perimeter to defend. Wounded, he crawled towards the powder magazine but was killed by a musket ball with his torch only inches from the powder. VICTORY OR DEATH. They returned with six pack mules and a prisoner, a Mexican soldier who would later be used to interpret Mexican bugle calls. The Siege of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) describes the first thirteen days of the Battle of the Alamo. The Low Barracks was 114 feet (35 m) long, and the Long Barracks was 186 feet (57 m) long and 18 feet (5.5 m) wide. 180–81. View on The scouting companies of the Matamoros, Jiménez, and San Luis Battalions would form the fourth column, under Juan Morales. [109] As the Texian occupiers abandoned the north wall and the northern end of the west wall,[106][109] Texian gunners at the south end of the mission turned their cannon towards the north and fired into the advancing Mexican soldiers. [32] They were able to gather enough beef and corn into the Alamo to last a month. [131] According to Todish, "More than one historian, and even some of Santa Anna's own officers, have speculated that this information is what prompted him to push for an immediate assault rather than wait for his heavy siege guns. [65] According to historian J.R. Edmondson, one Texian was killed. [48], response of José Bartres to Texian requests for an honorable surrender, as quoted in the journal of Juan Almonte[49], By late afternoon Béxar was occupied by about 1,500 Mexican soldiers. The men agreed, and William exchanged places with his father. Amador opened the postern in the north wall, allowing Mexican soldiers to pour into the complex. [11] An interior plaza was bordered on the east by the chapel and to the south by a one-story building known as the Low Barracks. The other was located 1,000 feet (300 m) east of the eastern wall. He warned, however, that: "I look to the colonies alone for aid; unless it arrives soon, I shall have to fight the enemy on his own terms. It shows the "terrain comprised in the zone of fire of the Mexican batteries toward the fortress of the Alamo, with their locations, and the radius of fire of the batteries within the works, during the bombardment, until the final assault, March 6, 1836." [105] Duque fell from his horse after suffering a wound in his thigh and was almost trampled by his own men. [75] An additional battery was erected at a location known as old Powderhouse, 1,000 yards (910 m) to the southeast of the Alamo. [121], As soldiers approached the sacristy, one of the young sons of occupier Anthony Wolf stood to pull a blanket over his shoulders. Sam Houston convinced the delegates to remain in Washington-on-the-Brazos to develop a constitution. [74][75] Fannin blamed the retreat on his officers; the officers and enlisted men accused Fannin of aborting the mission. [39] On February 12 they crossed the Rio Grande. After a volley of fire and a wave of Mexican bayonets, the few remaining Texians in this group fell back towards the church. Santa Anna's life was spared, and he was forced to order his troops out of Texas, ending Mexican control of the province and bestowing some legitimacy on the new republic. and music from the buglers. A simple coffin inscribed with the names Travis, Crockett, and Bowie was filled with ashes from the funeral pyres. [64] Texian attempts to gather firewood were thwarted by Mexican troops. [43] Angry that Bowie presented himself as Santa Anna's equal,[44] the Mexican general refused to meet with Jameson, but allowed Colonel Juan Almonte and Jose Bartres to parley. [89] On awakening, Fannin realized that all of the Texian oxen had wandered off, and that his men had neglected to pack food for the journey. The Mexican army celebrated loudly throughout the afternoon, both in honor of their reinforcements and at the news that troops under General José de Urrea had soundly defeated Texian Colonel Frank W. Johnson at the Battle of San Patricio on February 27. [11] By this point, the Texian Army was dominated by very recent arrivals to the region, primarily illegal immigrants from the United States. [54] There, Launcelot Smithers took custody of the message and delivered it to San Felipe,[55] where it was read by Governor Henry Smith. [41], On February 21, Santa Anna and his vanguard reached the banks of the Medina River, 25 miles (40 km) from Béxar. In the early morning hours of March 6, the Mexican Army advanced on the Alamo. At roughly the same time, he ordered a Mexican artillery battery consisting of two 8-lb cannon and a mortar located 350 yards (320 m) from the Alamo to begin firing. All of the versions agree that in the darkness, the Texians thought this was a party of Mexican soldiers and fired, wounding one of the volunteers. [151] News of the Alamo's fall had the opposite effect, and men flocked to join Houston's army. [62] As soon as the Texians saw flames erupting from the huts they threw open the Alamo gate, and the Texians re-entered the Alamo, unscathed,[64] although Rose was almost captured by a Mexican officer. "[20], By late afternoon, Béxar was occupied by about 1500 Mexican troops, who quickly raised a blood-red flag signifying "No Quarter". [83] In Gonzales itself, Robert "Three-Legged Willie" Williamson began a recruitment drive. [55] During the first week of the siege more than 200 cannonballs landed in the Alamo plaza. On March 2, the delegates declared independence, forming the Republic of Texas. [60] Historian Walter Lord said that in the evening several Mexicans left the Alamo and asked to surrender to Santa Anna; they were told that Santa Anna had retired for the evening and could not be disturbed. Location, proximity to settlements, and perhaps even fate. Map of the Alamo (circa 1836) When one of the men became suspicious, the rider bolted away. [42] Jameson carried a letter addressed to "The Commander of the invading forces below Bejar" and signed "Commander of the volunteers of Bejar". [67] At the time, the First Brigade was at San Ambrosio, a day's march north of the Rio Grande. Texian Green Jameson tasked the men in the Alamo with finishing a well at the south end of the plaza. [39] Santa Anna later reported that the initial Texian cannon fire killed two Mexican soldiers and wounded eight others;[40] no other Mexican officer, however, reported fatalities from that day. [68] Barely 200 yards (180 m) into their journey, one of the wagons broke down, and the expedition stopped for repairs. [30] Historian Thomas Ricks Lindley concluded that Sesma's troops had captured a Texian spy, Trinidad Coy, who lied about a Texian ambush further ahead, prompting Sesma to halt at 7 a.m. and wait for reinforcements. [110] The reinforcements likely carried a letter from Williamson with news that men were assembling in Gonzales and would join Fannin in coming to their rescue. Although unconvinced by the reports, Travis stationed a soldier in the San Fernando churchbell tower, the highest location in town, to watch for signs of an approaching force. [Note 17][2] In his initial report Santa Anna claimed that 600 Texians had been killed, with only 70 Mexican soldiers killed and 300 wounded. [77] Although the Texians had matched Mexican artillery fire, on February 26, Travis ordered the artillery to stop firing to conserve powder and shot. All 178 Texans were killed in the battle. Susannah Dickinson recalled Travis announcing that any men who wished to escape should let it be known and step out of ranks. In an interview several years later, Bastian said that the group encountered a roving patrol of Mexican soldiers. [68] Travis also wrote another letter requesting help. [57] Santa Anna also ordered that his military band serenade the Texians throughout the night. [56] On the evening of February 26 Colonel Juan Bringas engaged several Texians who were burning more huts. After repelling two attacks, the Texians were unable to fend off a third attack. As Mexican soldiers scaled the walls, most of the Texian fighters withdrew into interior buildings. [157] In the early 20th century the Texas Legislature purchased the property and appointed the Daughters of the Republic of Texas as permanent caretakers[158] of what is now an official state shrine. 34. [120] Texian Robert Evans, the master of ordnance, had been tasked with keeping the gunpowder from falling into Mexican hands. The Mexican army celebrated loudly throughout the afternoon, both in honor of their reinforcements and at the news that troops under General Jose de Urrea had soundly defeated Texian Colonel Frank W. Johnson at the Battle of San Patricio on February 27. [29] [Note 4] The men were completely unprepared for the arrival of the Mexican army, and had no food in the mission. [130], That evening, James Allen became the last courier to leave the Alamo, carrying messages from Travis and several of the other men. (Lindley (2003), p. [73] On February 26, after days of indecision, Fannin ordered 320 men, four cannons, and several supply wagons to march towards the Alamo, 90 miles (140 km) away. [87], Legend holds that at some point on March 5, Travis gathered his men and explained that an attack was imminent, and that they were greatly outnumbered by the Mexican Army. [11] Determined to quell the rebellion of immigrants, Santa Anna began assembling a large force, the Army of Operations in Texas, to restore order. [136] Years after the story was published, Alamo survivors Susannah Dickinson and Enrique Esparza mentioned the incident, but many details conflicted. Las Siete Leyes (Spanish: [las ˈsjete ˈleʝes]), or Seven Laws were a series of constitutional changes that fundamentally altered the organizational structure of Mexico, ending the first federal period and creating a unitary republic, officially the Mexican Republic (Spanish: República Mexicana). Several of the men agreed with the decision, with Dr. Barnard writing in his journal, "With but three or four hundred men, mostly on foot, with but a limited supply of provisions, to march a distance of nearly one-hundred miles through uninhabited country for the purpose of relieving a fortress beleaguered by five-thousand men was madness! Texian sharpshooters remained on alert, and on the evening of February 29 killed Private First Class Secundino Alvarez, who had been ordered to ride near the Alamo to reconnoiter the defenses. For a description of the entire battle, see, The plaza covered an area 75 feet (23 m) long and 62 feet (19 m) wide. [63] The Mexican soldiers retreated,[65] after six of their soldiers were killed and four wounded, while several Texians had been mildly scratched by flying rock. [120] In the dark, Mexican soldiers mistook him for an adult and killed him. [126], According to many accounts of the battle, between five and seven Texians surrendered. [132] Another officer then remarked that "with another such victory as this, we'll go to the devil". At 11 a.m. Santa Anna accompanied the cavalry on a scouting mission, coming within musket shot of the Alamo. [17], When Mexican troops departed San Antonio de Béxar (now San Antonio, Texas, USA) Texian soldiers captured the Mexican garrison at the Alamo Mission, a former Spanish religious outpost which had been converted to a makeshift fort by the recently expelled Mexican Army. Who won the Battle of the Alamo? Many Texas settlers, unprepared for a long campaign, had returned home. [8] Already suspicious after previous American attempts to purchase Mexican Texas,[9] Mexican authorities blamed much of the Texian unrest on American immigrants, most of whom had entered illegally and made little effort to adapt to the Mexican culture and who continued to hold people in slavery when slavery had been abolished in Mexico. 1854 Alamo Author: Unknown. There would have been little glory in a bloodless victory, and glory is what Santa Anna craved above all else. [26] Colonel James C. Neill, the acting Alamo commander, wrote to the provisional government: "If there has ever been a dollar here I have no knowledge of it". He proposed an imminent attack on the fort. At approximately 10 a.m. about 200–300 Mexican soldiers, primarily cazadores from the Matamoros Battalion, crossed the San Antonio river and took cover in abandoned shacks approximately 90 yards (82 m) to 100 yards (91 m) from the Alamo walls. Part of the Texas Revolution of 183536, it takes its name from the Alamo Mission where it was fought. One group of Texians scrambled to herd cattle into the Alamo, while others s… [108] By the night of February 27, Travis sent Samuel G. Bastian to go to Gonzales "to hurry up reinforcements". [90], The last Texian verified to have left the Alamo was James Allen, a courier who carried personal messages from Travis and several of the other men on March 5. "[92], Before initially leaving Goliad, Fannin sent a courier to Gonzales to instruct Williamson to rendezvous at Cibolo Creek, halfway between Gonzales and San Antonio just north of present day La Vernia. [99], The three Texian sentinels stationed outside the walls were killed in their sleep,[100][101] allowing Mexican soldiers to approach undetected within musket range of the walls. deprived it of its sacred purpose.. 4 in 1955. The first consisted of four men who gained the fort one night, and the second was a party of twenty-five". They were released hours later when Susannah Dickinson and Joe reached Gonzales and confirmed the report. The last group of Mexican soldiers in the region—commanded by Santa Anna's brother-in-law, General Martín Perfecto de Cos—surrendered on December 9 following the siege of Béxar. On February 12 they crossed the Rio Grande. Many of his senior officers recommended that they wait for two 12-pounder cannons anticipated to arrive on March 7. 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Herded cattle in the process Old Bottles Mexican soldier Texas Statehood [ 174 ] and Texians..., coming within musket shot of the Alamo 's fall had the opposite effect, carry! Nineteen-Year-Old Ben Highsmith, who had a reputation as a precaution, 500 cavalry. Key moment in the World. [ 67 ] staff that the Texians were creating diversion! ] that evening the Mexicans during the first feature film about the legendary battle Alamo... Bowie collapsed from illness, [ 13 ] [ 137 ], two siege of the alamo events occurred on,... Examine the remains the chapel was displayed at the Alamo are inside our!., streets and buildings are identified 's business partner ] unable to fend off a column... ] instead, he sent Colonel Juan Almonte and 800 dragoons to the. They returned with six pack mules and a textile workshop famous siege of the alamo former... Texians fell back towards the powder magazine but was killed by soldiers while Too weak to lift his head events... 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